South Pole Ice Core


Peer Reviewed


  1. Buizert C, Fudge TJ, Roberts WHG, Steig EJ, Sherriff-Tadano S, Ritz C, Lefebvre E, Edwards J, Kawamura K, Oyabu I, Motoyama H, Kahle EC, Jones TR, Abe-Ouchi A, Obase T, Martin C, Corr H, Severinghaus JP, Beaudette R, Epifanio JA, Brook EJ, Martin K, Chappellaz J, Aoki S, Nakazawa T, Sowers TA, Alley RB, Ahn J, Sigl M, Severi M, Dunbar NW, Svensson A, Fegyveresi JM, He C, Liu Z, Zhu J, Otto-Bliesner BL, Lipenkov VY, Kageyama M, Schwander J (2021) Antarctic surface temperature and elevation during the Last Glacial Maximum. Science, 372(6546), 1097-1101.
  2. Johnson JA, Kuhl TW, Boeckmann G, Gibson CJ, Jetson J, Meulemans Z, Slawny KR, Souney JM (2021) Drilling operations for the South Pole Ice Core (SPICEcore) project. Annals of Glaciology, 1-14.
  3. Kahle EC, Steig EJ, Jones TR, Fudge TJ, Koutnik MR, Morris VA, Vaughn BR, Schauer AJ, Stevens CM, Conway H, Waddington ED, Buizert C, Epifanio J, White JWC (2021) Reconstruction of temperature, accumulation rate, and layer thinning from an ice core at South Pole, using a statistical inverse method. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126, e2020JD033300.
  4. Souney JM, Twickler MS, Aydin M, Steig EJ, Fudge TJ, Street LV, Nicewonger MR, Kahle EC, Johnson JA, Kuhl TW, Casey KA, Fegyveresi JM, Nunn RM, Hargreaves GM (2021) Core handling, transportation, and processing for the south pole ice core (SPICEcore) project. Annals of Glaciology, 1-13.
  5. Steig EJ, Jones TR, Schauer AJ, Kahle EC, Morris VA, Vaughn BH, Davidge L, White JWC (2021) Continuous-Flow Analysis of δ17O, δ18O, and δD of H2O on an Ice Core from the South Pole. Frontiers in Earth Science, 9:640292, 1-14.
  6. The IceCube Collaboration (2021) Design, performance, and analysis of a measurement of optical properties of Antarctic ice below 400 nm. In proceedings of “37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021) July 12-23, 2021 Online – Berlin, Germany”. Proceedings of Science. arXiv:2107.11809v1
  7. Winski DA, Osterberg EC, Kreutz KJ, Ferris DG, Cole‐Dai J, Thundercloud Z, Huang J, Alexander B, Jaeglé L, Kennedy JA, Larrick C, Kahle EC, Steig EJ, Jones TR (2021) Seasonally‐Resolved Holocene Sea Ice Variability Inferred from South Pole Ice Core Chemistry. Geophysical Research Letters, 48, e2020GL091602.


  1. Aydin M, Britten GL, Montzka SA, Buizert C, Primeau F, Petrenko V, Battle MB, Nicewonger MR, Patterson J, Hmiel B, Saltzman ES (2020) Anthropogenic impacts on atmospheric carbonyl sulfide since the 19th century inferred from polar firn air and ice core measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125, e2020JD033074.
  2. Epifanio JA, Brook EJ, Buizert C, Edwards JS, Sowers TA, Kahle EC, Severinghaus JP, Steig EJ, Winski DA, Osterberg EC, Fudge TJ, Aydin M, Hood E, Kalk M, Kreutz KJ, Ferris DG, and Kennedy JA (2020) The SP19 chronology for the South Pole Ice Core – Part 2: gas chronology, Δage, and smoothing of atmospheric records. Climate of the Past, 16, 2431-2444.
  3. Fudge TJ, Lilien DA, Koutnik M, Conway H, Stevens CM, Waddington ED, Steig EJ, Schauer AJ, Holschuh N (2020) Advection and non-climate impacts on the South Pole Ice Core. Climate of the Past, 16, 819-832.
  4. Nicewonger MR, Aydin M, Prather MJ and Saltzman ES (2020) Extracting a history of global fire emissions for the past millennium from ice core records of acetylene, ethane, and methane. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125, e2020JD032932.
  5. Nicewonger MR, Aydin M, Prather MJ and Saltzman ES (2020) Reconstruction of paleofire emissions over the past millennium from measurements of ice core acetylene. Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2019GL085101.
  6. Rongen M, Bay RC, Blot S (2020) Observation of an optical anisotropy in the deep glacial ice at the geographic South Pole using a laser dust logger. The Cryosphere, 14, 2537-2543.


  1. Dütsch M, Blossey PN, Steig EJ, Nusbaumer JM (2019) Nonequilibrium fractionation during ice cloud formation in iCAM5: Evaluating the common parameterization of supersaturation as a linear function of temperature. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 11, 3777- 3793.
  2. Fegyveresi JM, Fudge TJ, Ferris DG, Winski DA, Alley RB (2019) Visual Observations and Stratigraphy of the South Pole Ice Core (SPICEcore): A Preliminary Holocene (~10.2 ka) Accumulation Record and Depth-Age Chronology. ERDC/CRREL TR-19-10, 1-44.
  3. Hartman LH, Kurbatov AV, Winski DA, Cruz-Uribe AM, Davies SM, Dunbar NW, Iverson NA, Aydin M, Fegyveresi JM, Ferris DG, Fudge TJ, Osterberg EC, Hargreaves GM, and Yates MG (2019) Volcanic glass properties from 1459 C.E. volcanic event in South Pole ice core dismiss Kuwae caldera as a potential source. Scientific Reports, 9:14437, 1-7.
  4. Winski DA, Fudge TJ, Ferris DG, Osterberg EC, Fegyveresi JM, Cole-Dai J, Thundercloud Z, Cox TS, Kreutz KJ, Ortman N, Buizert C, Epifanio J, Brook EJ, Beaudette R, Severinghaus J, Sowers T, Steig EJ, Kahle EC, Jones TR, Morris V, Aydin M, Nicewonger MR, Casey KA, Alley RB, Waddington ED, Iverson NA, Dunbar NW, Bay RC, Souney JM, Sigl M and McConnell JR (2019) The SP19 chronology for the South Pole Ice Core -- Part 1: volcanic matching and annual layer counting. Climate of the Past, 15(5), 1793-1808.


  1. Kahle EC, Holme C, Jones TR, Gkinis V, and Steig EJ (2018) A Generalized Approach to Estimating Diffusion Length of Stable Water Isotopes from Ice‐Core Data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 123, 2377– 2391.
  2. Lilien DA, Fudge TJ, Koutnik MR, Conway H, Osterberg EC, Ferris DG, Waddington ED and Stevens MC (2018) Holocene ice‐flow speedup in the vicinity of the South Pole. Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 6557–6565.
  3. Nicewonger MR, Aydin M, Prather MJ and Saltzman ES (2018) Large changes in biomass burning over the last millennium inferred from paleoatmospheric ethane in polar ice cores. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(49), 12413-12418.


  1. Casey KA, Kaspari SD, Skiles SM, Kreutz K, Handley MJ (2017) The spectral and chemical measurement of pollutants on snow near South Pole, Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 122, 6592-6610.


  1. Casey KA, Fudge TJ, Neumann TA, Steig EJ, Cavitte MGP and Blankenship DD (2014) The 1500 m South Pole ice core: recovering a 40 ka environmental record. Annals of Glaciology, 55(68), 137-146.

General Public


  1. Hickey H (2021) South Pole and East Antarctica warmer than previously thought during last ice age, two studies show. University of Washington
  2. Klampe M (2021) Antarctica wasn’t quite as cold during the last ice age as previously thought, new study shows. Oregon State University
  3. Lipuma L (2021) Southern Ocean Sea Ice Cover Has Gradually Grown Over The Past 10,000 Years - A Long-Term View Of Sea Ice Extent Gives Researchers Insight Into The Effects Of Climate Change. The Antarctic Sun
  4. NSF Public Affairs (2021) Ice core chemistry study expands insights into sea ice variability in Southern Hemisphere. National Science Foundation 
  5. Thompson E (2021) South Pole Ice Core Reveals History of Antarctic Sea Ice. Eos, 102.
  6. Wolf M (2021) Ice core chemistry research expands insight into sea ice variability in Southern Hemisphere. Univesity of Maine


  1. Hickey H (2016) UW part of team that drilled first deep ice core at the South Pole. University of Washington
  2. Johnson SK (2016) From the South Pole to the science section: How ice becomes knowledge. Ars Technica
  3. Lucibella M (2016) Getting to the Bottom of SPICECORE - Researchers drill deep into the ice beneath the South Pole to sample Earth's ancient atmosphere. The Antarctic Sun


  1. Hickey H (2015) Scientists drilling first deep ice core at the South Pole. University of Washington
  2. Rejcek P (2015) Going deep - Drilling project to retrieve longest ice core ever from South Pole. The Antarctic Sun
  3. USAP (2015) Big Load - Cargo Operations Mark The Beginning Of The End To 2014-15 Antarctic Field Season. The Antarctic Sun


  1. Rejcek P (2013) SPICE-ing it up - New project plans to retrieve South Pole ice core beginning in 2014-15. The Antarctic Sun